Water Treatment Systems

Drinking water does not meet the established requirements to perform dialysis treatments, raising the need of having a specific water treatment system in each dialysis unit. The water treatment system configuration is based on the required dialysis water quality as well as on the chemical and microbiological profile of the incoming feed water.

It is of the utmost importance the adequate selection and configuration of the different processes, devices and purification steps, which are necessary for the preparation and delivery of dialysis water, concentrates and dialysis fluids (including the online produced substitution fluid). Underlining consideration must be given to quality, standards, performance, risk and costs.

Dialysis water is the final output of the water treatment system. The system generally comprise of three basic steps: pre-treatment, primary treatment and distribution. In some cases a fourth, secondary purification step, may be added depending on the local feed water quality profile, regulations or operational conditions.


Step 1 - Pre-treatment

The pre-treatment step conditions the water prior to the primary purification devices, to prevent fouling or damage to more sensitive down-stream components. This typically comprises of macro particle filtration; sedimentation; micro particle filtration; ion exchange and adsorption. In some cases additional treatment such as chemical injection may be required.


Step 2 - Primary/Secondary treatment

The primary treatment is the main purification process and relies on a reverse osmosis device, using membrane technology for the removal of inorganic (ions), organic and microorganisms. A secondary treatment step e.g. reverse osmosis (double pass), ultrafiltration, submicron filtration, ion exchange and/or ultraviolet irradiation may be included.


Step 3 - Distribution

The final step is the distribution system delivering dialysis water to the dialysis machine and other points of use.



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Dialysis water is the final output of the water treatment system. 
The system generally comprise of three basic steps.


Compact Water Treatment Systems

Specially developed for small applications, such as Home Dialysis and Intensive Care Units, our compact systems are fully compatible with the standards, covering a wide range of demands.



In-house concentrates preparation and distribution systems

The dialysis concentrates are available in different forms. Acid concentrate may be available in individual or bulk containers in the form of a liquid, dry powder, other highly concentrated media, or some combination of these forms.   
The buffer solution is usually available as an individual container of liquid or in the form of a dry powder (the later one is preferred due to lower risk of microbial contamination).



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